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Emergency Cheklist-People have only one live

Emergency Cheklist

Don't become a casualty yourself this may sound facetious. Don't jump into the water to save someone if you cannot swim. Think twice about dragging someone clear of a burning car - the petrol tank may be about to explode. Cool logic is often forgotten in emergencies.

Remove the casualty and yourself from immediate danger. If there is no danger, do not move the casualty - you may cause further injury. The condition which is most life-threatening is the condition which should be dealt with first.

Make sure that the person is breathing and that the heart is beating. If not, give artificial respiration and/or cardiac resuscitation (see Breathing below and Circulation).

Check for and stop severe Bleeding.

If the person is unconscious or shows signs of failing consciousness, put him or her in the recovery position and check the pulse at regular intervals (see Unconsciousness). Never leave an unconscious person alone unless this is unavoidable.

Treat any serious Wounds or Burns and immobilise any Fractures or Dislocations.

When the casualty's condition is stable, take steps to prevent SHOCK and place in the recovery position (see Unconsciousness). Keep the person warm but not too hot. Do not give anything to eat or drink, except in specific situations such as at Burns, Heatstroke or Hypothermia. There may be internal injury, or the person may need a general anaesthetic in hospital later.

 

Getting medical help

Away from home, dial 999 in the UK, 199 in the US. Otherwise try and get hold of your GP; if he is not immediately available, dial 999. Only if you are in an isolated situation, and there is likely to be considerable delay before help can get to you, should you consider taking the casualty to hospital yourself.

If possible, get someone else to phone the emergency services, otherwise dial 999 at the first opportunity. Usually the person who answers the telephone will ask a series of questions designed to extract the most vital information first. Respond calmly, answer clearly, and be prepared to give details of how many casualties are involved, the types of injuries, the kind of help needed, the exact location, and your phone number.

If the emergency services are not required, arrange for transport to the nearest Accident and Emergency (formerly 'Casualty') department, or ring your local GP.

Examining the casualty
Check immediately for breathing and pulse
Breathing, and continue to check and record the pulse every 5 minutes. Try to find out from the casualty, or from a witness, exactly what happened. If the injured person is conscious, ask if there is pain and where, and examine the body very gently but firmly for bleeding, bruising, or limb deformities, comparing both sides of the body.

Note the colour of the person's skin. Pallor may indicate Shock. Feel the forehead with the palm of your hand. If it feels very hot, the casualty may have a fever; if it feels cold, he or she may be going into shock. Examine the pupils of the eyes. Are they very large or unequal in size? Smell the breath for alcohol. Look for any bracelets, or neck chains which warn of a medical condition such as Epilepsy, Diabetes, or Haemophilia; these usually indicate the kind of help that is required.

Record the results of your examination if you can, and pass then on to the medical helpers when they arrive

 

Breathing

If the airway to the lungs (mouth, throat, or windpipe) is obstructed, the person will not be able to breathe (see Asphyxia). Breathing can also cease because the lungs are damaged or full of fluid, or contain gases other than air. Or there may be a brain or heart malfunction. If breathing stops, the brain becomes starved if oxygen and irreversible damage may occur. Hold your ear close to the casualty's nose and mouth for 10 seconds. If he or she is breathing you should hear or feel the movement of air. While you are doing this, look at the chest wall to see if it is rising and falling. If the skin looks very pale, or bluish, especially around the lips, this is more evidence that breathing has stopped or that circulation is impaired.

 

Artificial respiration

If breathing has stopped, place the casualty on his or her back on a firm surface. Tilt the head backwards and bring the lower jaw upwards and forwards to open the throat and keep the tongue from blocking the airway. Clear out any material from the, mouth and throat. Pinch the casualty's nose. Take a deep breath, seal your mouth around the casualty's mouth and blow into the lungs, just enough to make the chest rise. Then take your mouth away and watch the chest fall. If the heart is bearing, the casualty should regain a healthy color after the first inflations. Give the first 6-12 breaths quickly, then slow down to a rate which is enough to keep the casualties color normal-looking - about the same as your own breathing rate.

Once the casualty is breathing strongly and unaided, place him or her in the recovery position (see Unconsciousness and monitor breathing until medical help arrives. If breathing falters or does not continue unaided, carry on giving artificial respiration unto medical help arrives. If, after 2 breaths of artificial respiration, the casualty does not respond, give cardiac resuscitation (Circulation).

Homeopathic remedies if you are on your own, do not give any remedies until the casualty is breathing regularly and unaided. However, if there is someone else present who can carry on with the resuscitation, select a remedy from the list below.

 


TAG:  first aid, first aid ways, Emergency Cheklist, emergency help

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